- Dr. Nimananda Rijal
Introduction: Nepali People have printed their map in the heart and mind of greater Nepal. ‘Bhimsen’s Prime Minister Ship is best remembered for the Anglo-Nepalese war. The territorial expanse of the Gurkha Empire had reached its greatest extent from Sutlej River in the west to the Teesta river in the east. (Wekipedia, 2019)’ Why this question was relevant because of the boundary of Nepal was also in expansion and the colonial power British had taken over the land of Nepal by force. Sugauli treat was on 4th March 1816 by loosing few battles with British that made the boundary of Nepal being cropped. This treaty snatched 1/3 land of Nepal, in West from Kumaun, Gadwal. Sutlej area was to given up and the boundary was set up to the East of Mahakali River, Up to 1806, the Nepalese boundary was up to Kangada (Shrestaha, 2066 BS.) In the East, It was taken over by the British where there was even war and dispute, the boundary was set to Mechi River, This was cruelty to Nepal; still it has been remained as chronic to Nepalese People. This treaty was not made with India, India now encroaching land of Nepal’s 961 places (Suwal, 2019).
There was a great dispute about the Sugauli treaty, the Nepali people including the brothers and relatives of Bhimsen Thapa were in favor of war with British, so that the treaty will not be activated, immediately the military power and support from anywhere was not possible to acquire, so the movement drive away Nomads of Asia was taking place of Bhimsen Thapa. They were driven away from Asia but Nepal’s land snatched and handed over to India which was not a fair deal from British ruler.
Nepal before Sugauli treaty. The British attacked to Nepal from different area and the major loss was on 1814 in the western frontier, the Nepali military returned back to take stand on the Mahakali area, Kangada to Mahakali- this was as per the record, the Nepalese Soldiers were not getting help from center. The British were badly defeated in Butwal, Parsa and Jaithak areas but emerged victorious in Kumaon and Garhwal in the first phase. In the second phase, Nepal lost war in Hariharpur Gadhi and Makawanpur and was compelled to sign Sugauli Treaty. The war, referred to as Anglo-Nepal War in Nepal’s military history, changed Nepal’s politics, economy and social life forever. (Basnyat, 2019)
Border treaty In Between British and Nepal.
Sugauli Treaty. (March 1816)
The Sugauli Treaty of 1816 had rendered moot the degree of independence of Nepal. The sixth, seventh and eighth points of the treaty were:
1 (6). The king of Nepal engages never to molest or disturb the king of Sikkim in the possession of his territories. If any difference shall arise between Nepal and Sikkim, it shall be referred to the arbitration of the East India Company.
2 (7). The king of Nepal hereby engages never to take or retain in his service any British subject, nor the subject of any European or American State, without the consent of the British Government.
Nepal–Britain Treaty of 1923 : This was an Important meeting in the history of Nepal since it was formally British Empire recognized a Independent country with the exercise in between two countries, the treaty was signed in 1923 December 21 in Singha Durbar. Nepal produced this treaty to league of Nation on 1925.
1) Nepal and Britain will forever maintain peace and mutual friendship and respect each other’s internal and external independence.
2) All previous treaties, agreements and engagements, since and including the Sugauli Treaty of 1815, which have been concluded between the two Government are hereby essentially cancelled, except so far as they may be altered by the present Treaty. (Assad, 1970)
Nepal after Sugauli Treaty:
Nepal was kept in dark for long period, even though some corner of nationality was not died and tried to cover their territory with dispute with neighboring country. When there was war in between India and China in 1962, then India asked the point for military station in Lipulek since it is in strategic point to control the Chinese Invasion. Since then Indian Military has been occupying the area, recently India published the map by encroaching the area of Kalapani, Lipulek, and Limpuadhuri.
Land Returned to Nepal.
The world knew, the land of Nepal was snatched by the British government during the Sugauli treaty, after some diplomacy and good relation with British government and support , British government some areas of the Terai region that comprises today’s Banke, Bardiya District, Kailali, and Kanchanpur districts of western Terai collectively known as “Naya Mukluk” (“New Country”) were returned to Nepal. Nepal also helped the British in the First World War. The relation between Nepal and Britain was generally good both before and after the treaty.
Need to Tripartite Negotiation.
The dispute in the border in between India and Nepal was leftover legacy of British ruler in 18th century, the map and the fact are preserved with the British and they have well recorded as well, the map immediately made after ht treaty is also with them, Nepal also preserved some facts, in BS. 2018, Nepal have census and the Nepalese enumerators were in the area, the article of Bhairav Risal a genuine Journalist of Nepal involved in the census of 1958
Whatever happened in between East India Company and Nepal was not the issue of present India, if India do not recognize the border of Nepal set by British and Nepal , Nepal should also be claimed its original land, already it has been registered to UN by the Greater Nepal advocacy group. We need to return back our land, if recognized the map and boundaries by the India , they should remove the military base from Kalapani area without any condition. So, here our approach should be collecting proper proof from British government and their presence on to resolve the disputed land of Kalapani and other areas, since after 6 months of Sugauli treaty, there was joint boundary demarcating commission, they have erected 890 Jangi Pillars due to the remoteness, there were not enough to determine the boundary, later on many pillars were added in by the joint team of Nepal and Indian ruled British..
Diplomacy to engage to UK.
Nepal should ask to engage UK in removing military base from Kalapani area to return encroached land, since Britain have original map of the Kalapani area, in other area also India which has been encroaching by India of Nepal’s territory. India need to remember, in 21st century, land could not be grabbed by force, it will remain as disputed and always will be chronic in the relation of two countries, Nepal also developing rapidly in technology and harnessing its resources, one day, Bahdurs will be super in technology as well. Science is perfectly for everyone, Nepalese are doing fantastic in international arena, and they will also do the best to protect the boundary of their mother land. So to settle the dispute in amicable manner, the British government should be in between to demarcate the boundary as per the map which was mad by the British of Kalapani area after Sugauli treaty.
Internationalize the issue: If India does not agree to come to the table with British to resolve the issue of Kalapnai and even other areas, then after it should be made international with UN. Before doing this, there should be a serious talk in between tripartite with the proof.
- Assad, H. (1970). British India’s relation with Kingdom of Nepal. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.77.
- Basnyat, P. S. (2019, July 20). War changed everything. The Republica .
- Shrestaha, B. (2066 BS.). Treaty with Nepal- India and China. In S. P. Aman Shrestha (Ed.), Chapter -2 , A study of Tereaty on broder of Nepal (Vol. 1, pp. 19-58). Kathmandu: Madhuban Prakashan.
- Suwal, P. (2019, 11 20). All should be serious not to protect our land. Pathivara News 20 Nov 2019 .
- Wekipedia. (2019, November Monday). Wekipedia. Retrieved 2019, from Bhimsenthapa: www. The Anglo-Nepali War (1 November 1814 – 4 March 1816),