Religion And Human Being On Disappearing Track

Nimananda rijal
The scholarly people were fought to overcome from the dark stage and succeed explaining the fact of Vedic concept even though Hinduism diverted into many branches and prepared ground for philosophical thinking for all sorts of religion and philosopher.
लाेकपाटी न्यूज

– Dr. Nimananda Rijal

Religion it cannot define what it is but it is absorbed in the human being. ‘There are thousand religion around the world. Some religions among the primitive tribe of New Guinea for example or the isolated jungles of south America, may not even have been discovered yet by civilized man.164.  They have also find the way to be transcended as other religions.

In the materialistic world religion is regarded as ‘Opium’ (marx) and for its counter told as ‘Tonic’ (Vivekananda) Both of them have their own justification.  What direction the religions have been taking to direct the action of the humanbeing ; it should be examined.

‘History is full of examples of wars being fought in the name religion, particularly religion being propagated by the sword of riots and deep seated enmity between the adherents of different religions and of heirs of various sects;165 Human being is highly motivated in the spiritual world as manifested in the religion.  They already to sacrifice themselves in the name of God or religion; the action which are to perform can be performed only with psychological attachment.  It indicates that religion is deep rooted in the heart of the humanbeing.

Being the early religion, Hinduism had with stand with different blows from different invasion over Indus valley.  The people of Indus valley developed the first civilization, they have practiced over thousand years before invasion from others; Some western writer tried to bound the Hindu religion in the time frame.  It cannot be bind in the time frame.

The ‘Hindu’ is derived from ‘Indus ‘ valley and the religion ws practiced since the emergence of religion.  According to the Hindu philosophy, the time cycle is divided into four (age).  Two different leader of hinduism regarded as God, Rama and \Krishna led in two different Yuga.  The fact unveiled that Rama’s yuga was Treta and Krishna’s yuga was Dwaper.  To commemorate the memory of Rama, his son Lava, Kush and king of Saravasti, king of Kaushal built a magnificient temple at the palace of Shri Rama’s birth place Ayodha.  It was renovated by Maharaj Yudhistry of Mahabharat fame in 3100 B.C.’166

The Yuga of Krishna begins after two different Yugas elapsed.  The people of those Yuga had lived in different places and developed own their way; they might had gathered only for religion conversations and to celebrate the festivals.  The Buddha enlighten through his own way.  Nepal became the land  of  experiments of Mokshya (liberation), During the time of Buddha (around  2600 B.C. ) Kapilvastu (present one of the district of Nepal) was a developed city which is discovered and preserved by the Archaeology department, Government of Nepal.  It displayed that this area; present South East Asia was the fostering ground of spiritual and physical development.

The Hindu religion had passed the very dark stages in the history; it was forced to be confined in the hand of exploiter.  This was the cause where the society divided into different groups; it is known as caste system.  The religion utilized by feudal as a means of exploitation.  Still some conservative Brahmin of India and Nepal have this feeling; even they did not hesitate to say the Veda should not be read by the untouchable and women.  If we scrutinize this statement through Vedic literature, the vast Hindu religion was used as means of exploitation by the exploiter during the age of feudal system; still this system existed in the under develop economic system.  It sowed the seed of conflict in the society; the caste system kept the society in the darkness which is the set back of Hinduism.  Many saint and sages tried to profound the Vedic culture where every human are regarded equal.

The scholarly people were fought to overcome from the dark stage and succeed explaining the fact of Vedic concept even though Hinduism diverted into many branches and prepared ground for philosophical thinking for all sorts of religion and philosopher.

The social conflicts which are evolved by the name of the religion are the setback for all religions and further development of humankind.

1.1. Converting People One to Another Religion

‘The West Asia, the birth place of three leading religion of the world Christianity, Islam and Judaism is living today under the shadow of persisting tension, terror and strife’167 The fact of terror and killing between Israeli and Palestine cannot be separated from religious conflicts.  It can be traced back to two hundred years as historical conflict.  Mostly the centre of origin of three religions had sparked the conflicts all over the world; it is carried out in the name of religion.  So it is important to understand why the West Asia became the battle ground for long time? It is associated between Islam and Christianity backed Judaism.

1.2. Palestine Problem

It is a problem of political thinking based on religion.  It can be seen in one of the statement made; the rise of the Islam is perhaps the most amazing event in human history. Springing from Arab land and a people alike previously converted to Islam , from small group of  Islam spread within a century over half the earth, shattering building up a whole new world,  the world of Islam.168 When the Jews were expelled from the land of their birth place presently the area which is occupied by Syria, Lebanon and Jordan.  The Jews forced to live their homeland and they settled all over the corners of the world wherever they could find the place.  It present, the place where Israel located is called Palestine.

The Jews homeland question raised and tried to solve by the League of Nation which is known as ‘Balfour Declaration’ of 2nd November 1917.  The declaration was promising to lay down the foundation for Jews national home in Palestine.  The declaration ‘expressed its willingness to create a Jewish state out of the British controlled territories of Palestine and Jordan.  However the plan could not be carried through ……169

The Jews were executed by Nazi Germany; ‘Holocaust’ is the famous scandal in the world of religion.  So the demand of the creation of separate Jewish state gathered momentum in 1947. ‘The UN general assembly recommended the creation separate Jewish and Arab state in Palestine on the expiry of British mandate. Following this recommendation a Jewish state of Israel was proclaimed on 14th May 1948.’170

Around seven hundred thousand Arab lost their home and forced them to live as refugees in tents in the desert of neighboring countries especially in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria.  The declaration tried to solve the problem of Jewish but another side? it was over looked.  The USA declared its recognition as independent separate state as Israel ‘The following day, 15th may 1948 combined Arabian Armies of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon invaded the newly born Jewish  state.  A cease fire was enforced on 7th January 1949 but by that time Israel had made 50% increases in its territory. Major war was fought in 1956, 1967 and 1973’ 171

The war which was not desired by the people were fought and destroyed the peace of the people since the establishment of the Israel.  The West Asia remained in tension and terror of declared and undeclared wars.  In 1964, Palestine Liberation Organization which is well known as PLO, Its main aim was to restore their home land and the PLO succeed in focusing the attention of Palestine problem worldwide.  ‘In 1974 Arab government and UN formally recognized the PLO as representative of displaced Palestine.172

The same organization as UN allowed to form the Israel nation and it recognized PLO as displaced Palestine people’s representative.  Is it not enough to be suspicious in its intention ?  What they want to do to the people of West Asia?  More bloodshed and violence, terror and developing hatred each other.

The Palestine problem is not attached only with settlement problem; it should be examined from the angle of religion.  The Islam movement does not want to allow other religions to be taken over by displacing their followers.  So the counter attack launched within the second day of declaration independent state of Israel.  The Israeli are backed by the West and its allied forces – mainly dominated by Christianity where they do not want to lose.  Bombarding over Lebanon in the name of terrorist, killing with each other is the present situation of West Asia.  This is the symbol of present human relationship in the world.

The seed of conflict disseminate between two human fellows; one day, they should be ready to live together sharing the common territories of land and sea.  If the religion cannot teach peace, friendship, mutual coexistence between different faith and values, what we expect from such religions.

1.3. Islam and Its’ Expansion.

The history of Islam is full of war; They have conquered by the sword.  The life of the prophet Muhammad and Islam should not be singled out for exploring the Islamic world.  The holy Quran was revealed through the prophet Muhammad who was illiterate but generous and purity in manners. He orphaned at the birth.  At 20, he was already a successful business man and soon became the director of camel caravans for a wealthy widow.  When reach 25, his employer recognized his merit, proposed marriage even though she was 15 years older than him.  He married her..’173  It indicates that he was sympathetic to humanity.

When reached at the age of forty years, he started preaching his thoughts as he was revealed.  The earliest converts to the Islam were his bosom friends and people of his households who all intimately acquainted with his private life.’174 At his time, those rich Arabs were worshiping many idols and prophet Muhammad’s message humiliated to those rich Arabs which was as against worshiping of idols.  So he and his followers were kicked out from Mecca, his birth place.  He went Medina. ‘This emigration or Hijrah, in 622 C.E. (A.D.) marked a significant point in Islamic history.’ 175   There, he became a ruler and spiritual leader.

‘He was forced to fight in defense of the freedom of conscience which he preached; he became an accomplished military leader.  He won some spectacular victories.’ 176 ‘He conquered Mecca (630 C.E.or 8th A.H. Muslim Year) and ordered to destroy three hundred and sixty idols of Kabba,  all the idols and house hold gods of Mecca and roundabout were destroyed.’177  He cleaned out destroyed idols from the Ka’bah (Kabba) and ‘established it as the focal point for pilgrimages to Mecca that continue down to this day.178  This was one of the major victory of his expansion work.  He continued it throughout his life.

Persia.

The Sassani empire in Persia was in a state of anarchy, following its long struggle with Byzantine empire.  Byzantine empire was seriously weakened, more the majority of native Christian population of Syria and Egypt had embarrassed with Byzantine and the Byzantine orthodox church.’179 This situation led to the Arab as Islam foe expansion in these areas.  The Islam was in full swing of war and expansion. ‘Muhammad sent a troop to invade settled Iraq, the expedition was against Christians and Arab tribe the motif of invasion was religion.  He declared holy war (JIHAD) those who died in the war were regarded martyrs. ‘180 Even after the death of prophet Muhammad in 632 A.D., the expansion of Islam continued by his successors.

After four years of death of Muhammad the Arab had won the battle against Byzantine emperor – Heraclius. ‘In 641 A.D. Arab army took Egypt,  the richest province of Byzantine.  In 649 A.D. Muawiyal seized the Cyprus.  Ommiad forces attacked great city of Constantinople present Istanbul, they lasted for seven years 674 – 680 A.D.’181

 Conquest in Central Asia.

 The Islam forces under Ommiad Viceroys eastern Iran and Transoxiana was conquered during 700-715 A.D. In Transoxiana and Afghanistan, the Muslim found flourishing.  They destroyed Buddhist centers.  The Muslim armies raided into territories and intervened the affairs of central Asia 182. It indicates that they were confronted with well established religion Buddhist in Central Asia, ‘ AHIMSA PRAMO DHARMA. ‘Concept of non violence is one of their noble truth was destroyed by the sword of Islam.

The same way they wanted to expand the Islamic movement in India.  They had invaded Sindha, the lower valley and delta of Indus river and ‘subjugated it in 710 A.D.’ Islam did not expand in the people of India as other part of their conquer areas where they felt only sword is not enough to win.

Westward Movement

Islam spread like a veld fire in North Africa and westward.  In 670 A.D. Kairovan in Tunesia was founded as the Arab base; By 675 They conquered Morocco.  With the conquest of Visigothic kingdom in Spain they had foot hold in Europe during 705-715.183

These example of wars clearly disclosed that the Islam was expanded together with the sword.  The sword does not recognize humanity, it propagates tyrant where others are suppressed.

Christianity also followed the same route to defend and expand their religion.  A religion expanding by the sword, what are they trying to teach their disciples? What moral and values would they develop?

1.4. Christianity and Its Expansion.

The concept of religion is given as to convert the people in to their faith. They have been working as missionaries throughout the world since its inception.  They have divided society into many pieces and cultivated deep rooted enmity between their brother and sister.  Early history is a history of struggle184. The struggle was to establish the Christianity in Europe.  It began worldwide movement during the time of Alexander the Great.185

In most part of the Europe, Paganism was inherent religion. Pagan they worship in Temples and they believed in natural Gods. Natural Gods are fire, sky, sea, thundering etc. In Rome during 98-117 B.C. teaching of Christianity was a crime.  Who tries death penalty was announced but there were loop holes for practicing Christianity because the Magistrate was not bound to search the Christians.  During 379-395 anti pagan government resumed, Theodosius forbade all the sacrifices and closed all the temples in 391.  A further step was taken prohibition of private exercise of Pagan.  In 392, Rome voted officially abolition of Pagan.  ‘Theodosius was a Christian Emperor.  He made Christianity law of land and given a place for Bishop in the state and recognized their jurisdiction in all the matters.186   Christianity was forced to adhere for the people of Rome by the converted Emperor.  So there was blood shade in the history of religion.  The most famous example is crusades between Islam and Christianity.

Crusades.

The war between Islam and Christians were fought during the period of 1096-1291, almost two hundred of years of war; most probably this should be the longest war in the human history. At the close of 11th century, the religious head of Christian, the pope called upon all the Christian countries of Western Europe to wage a holy war to recover Jerusalem and other Christian holy places in Palestine from the Muslims.  Muslims and captured these places in 1076.  This led a serried of religious wars between the Christians and the Muslims.   The war is known as crusades.

They had fought mainly eight wars but in all wars Christians had defeated.  The most illustrative crusade was children’s crusade.  This defeat gather the momentum in the Christian world for revenge and some Christian put forth a proposal to send children’s army for returning their captured holy places in Jerusalem.  The basis of their proposal was a statement in the Bible where in it said that a small child would lead the Christians.  Consequently a French shepherd gathered an army of (30,000) thirty thousand children while (20,000) twenty thousand German children under the leadership of Nicholas marched to Jerusalem.  But it turned out to be a fiasco.  Out of the French crusading children only one and out of German children 200 survived.  Some perished on the way a while others were sold in to slavery by the Muslims.188

The war between Muslims and Christians had outbreak number of times and in number of places which had led to sacrifice from children to adult.  The children who did not know the religion had sacrificed in the crusade.  It would not be forgotten in the religious history of mankind.

The religious conflicts caused by the Christianity can be traced back since the origin of Christianity; especially from the concept of Jesus Christ.  The church was not founded for the comfort of its members.  Jesus told his followers to spread his message to all nations beginning at Jerusalem and early Christian risked their life to do so.189  It disclosed that the missionaries were encouraged for spreading their faith through any means.  In Europe the Saxons were slaughtered by Christians.  Establishing their religion was their main task which was provided by their God.

‘The religion is not only creating wars between different religions;  They are creating social conflicts inter religion as well the fight between protestants and Catholic in Northern Ireland is one of the famous example’ 190. It indicates that there was a revolution between catholic and protestants want to convert catholic to protestants.  It carried up to 21st century where many lives have been sacrificed, ‘The rift increased as Dr. Martin Luther from Germany reformed the way of doing things in the Christianity.  The Pope send a troop to capture the Martin Luther and political situation did not allow it.  After Martin Luther almost all part of the Christianity started thinking in the new direction which is developed as Protestants.’ In 1993 Protestants killed more people than IRA in North Ireland.’191

If they are creating war between themselves what would be the situation with other faith; certainly they will not tolerate. They had done to the Pagans in Rome.  The religion was spread by the help of colonialism.  First powerful military invaded and captured the country than they started converting people in to Christian faith.

1.5. Hindu Muslim Conflict In India:

Islam and Christianity known as missionaries.  The aim of missionary is to destroy others with different means and tactics and establish their faith in the society.  Thus these missionaries are creating religious conflicts between their fellows, neighbors, and tribes.  The same story have been repeating many time in India. India was ruled by many famous Muslim rulers.  Once Muhammad (not prophet Muhammad) vowed himself to attack India every year and 17 times of his attack is illustrated in the history of India….. In 1009 A.D. he attacked the temple of Thaneswor and robbed a lot of jewels and money, the status of Chakra Swami taken away to Gajani and thrown in the public place.192 lt mosque ‘When Muslim ruler ruled the India, They tried to destroy the temples and built mosque ‘When Barber, a conservative Sunee, attacked over India; he had given the name of war as Jihad.’193

It indicates that the claim of Rama’s temple is not only the cause of rioting between Muslims and Hindus, the Islam is a missionary religion, when they attacked they had attacked in the name of holy war and Hindus they do not want to be invaded by the other religious faith.  The struggle to gain the temple of Rama is an example of religious manifestation of human being of 21st century. The conflict of Rama’s temple is known as Ayodhya conflict.

AYODHYA CONFLICT IN CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT:

On December 6, 1992, Once more Hindu Muslim conflict break out for regaining the place of Rama where the Babri Musjid was ‘One source coated that 16th century shrine reduced to rubble after Hindu hard liners swarmed over it, tearing out stones and bricks’194.The conflict spreads all part of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and other part of the world.  The Muslim started demolishing Hindu temples.  Many more lives were sacrificed in this riot.

This conflict did not outbreak all of sudden, it has a long history which should be looked at.  In place of Babri Mosque, the Rama’s temple was built ‘by the King Kaushal to commemorate memory of Shri Rama.  He built it in the birth place of Rama and the temple was renovated by the Maharaja Vikramaditya on 57 B.C.’195 .  Many invaders over India desecrated the temple of Rama.  ‘Salar Masud desecrated the temple around 1030 A.D. but local Hindus renovated it.196

In 1528 Mir Baqui, commander of Mughal invader destroyed the temple after a fierce fighting with Pt. Devideen Pandey,  King of Hansbar Sri Ravijaya Singh and Maharani Jayaraj  Kumari.

He tried to build the structure of Mosque.  Hindu launched four attacks and around one hundred thousands of lives lost.  During 1530-1556 ten more battles fought; during the time of Akbar 1556-1665 A.D. twenty battles were fought.  He had permitted to Hindus to build Rama Chabutra for worshipping Rama.

During the time of Aurangzeb 1605-1707 A.D. thirty more battles were fought.  Aurangzeb regained the control and destroyed the temple, killed ten thousand Hindus. During 1798-1857 around eight battles were fought for gaining and regaining the temple of Rama.

In 1857, when the independence struggle of India started, Hindu and Muslim unity realized.  The independence fighter and Saints tried to bring the harmony between Hindu and Muslim community.  They fought for independence.  Muslim decided to handover the Rama’s birth place to Hindus.  ‘1860 British allowed Muslims to enter the structure and Hindus continued to worship at Rama’s Chabutra outside the structure 1912-1923.  Hindu fought two fierce battles and 1934 Hindu possess the site.  Muslim discontinued coming there but the British ruler who want to divided and rule the country rehabilitate the Muslims at the place.  Thus 1528 to 1934, it is believed that there were more than 77 armed conflict and more than three hundred thousands (3, 00,000) Hindus sacrificed their lives to restore Shri Rama Janam Bhumi temple.197 Even after 1934 the dispute continued.

Many wars fought for restoring the temple of Rama which has been upbringing; the social conflicts even in late 20th century; it might be continued for centuries.  The colonial powers left the seed of social conflicts all over the world in different from.  They had utilized the weaknesses of the society.  India and Pakistan fought a very dangerous battle over Kashmir; it was a left over part of the colonial system.  The country divided into two different sections Pakistan and India in the name of religion.

The religion becoming the powerful means for dividing the society and country.  In former Yugoslavia, the major conflict is over the religion which has dismantled the old powerful and peaceful Yugoslavia into pieces.  Many thousands of people lost their lives.

1.6. Terrorism and Religion:

In the name of religion fighting, the terrorism activities are carried out in Ireland and West Asia. ‘The major act of terrorism attributed to Protestants was the planting of bombs.  In Dublin in may 1973 in which 33 people died the largest single killed in bombing.  Protestants groups have also been engaged in criminal activities such as arm robberies ……..’198

Since the advent of Islam shi’ism have provided the fuel for movements of protest and rebellion’..199 After the death of Prophet Muhammad the Islamic world divided into two different sections.  Sunni and Shi’ite; it happened for selection of successor of Prophet Muhammad.  Sunni believed the principle of ‘elective officer’ and Shiite believed true successor comes from blood line and through their cousin and son-in-law.  According to them Alibin Abi Talib ‘who married to prophet Muhammad’s favorite daughter, Fatimah.  Their marriage produced Muhammad’s grandson Hasan and Husain.  They believe ‘Ali as the legitimate successor but the first three caliphs had cheated him out of his right ful office’… ‘Shiah believe that there have been only 12 true Imams, and the last one of these, Muhammad al-Muntaz, disappeared (878 C.E.).’  They expected him to be appeared ‘as the Mahid (divinely guided one) to restore true Islam, conquer the whole world and usher in a short millennium before the end of all things.200

How the Shi’ism starts in Islamic movement has provided a thought for Jihad.  Once ‘the a former Iranian ambassador to Lebanon explains that government have been the biggest obstacles for starting Islamic movements in the world.’201

The motive what so ever, the act of terror will not be accepted.  The revenge and killing Uman fellow is not the act of religion but it is happening through out the history of religion.  World trade centre bombing may be religious motive but the attack was done as revenge of Christian backed leaders of the west.

‘The west is doing its best of destroy Muslims’ 202. News week coated that on Friday 26th February 1993 at 1:35 P.M. caller claiming to be from the Serbian Liberation Front, tells NYPD the blast is no Accident.’

Whoever did it is a form of terrorism which cannot be legalized by any political motive action.  Both Christianity and Islam are engaged in terrorist action one way or another.  The West is using direct military power in the name of protection which had killed innocent people of Islamic World.  It is also a terrorism done by the power.  They tried to legalize it in the eye of innocent people of the world.  Most of the Superpowers are backed by the Christians and  Muslims are in the verge of revenge.  Terrorism is not the way of religions.

1.7. Religions and Lessons to the Human Being:

Religion has taken a special place in the heart of the human kind.  They do not listen even think what lesson has given, what they learn from religion? The lessons which they learn have not applied in their action.  If the religions have given the proper lessons to the human being; all these crusades, fighting, hatred would have not been developed. A million people had in Rwanda within few months; those who are responsible to kill on the basis of ethnic also are religious people.  After genocide, most probably they might have gone to their church or Mosque for confession.

Observing all these examples of religions wars, we have a foundation to say that these religions have failed to teach the lesson of co-existence, mutual respect and social harmony.  Certainly there is something wrong with these religions.  They are preaching deep seated enmity between their own brothers and sisters.  Only their religion is good, others are not, is the prime lesson in their religious teaching.  Especially the missionary religions seem sympathetic to the deprived people and they provide some sort of assistance; start converting people into their faith which is the cause of social conflicts.  All these actions are not the form of religions.  For the believer of God, super nature or God, every entity are not discriminated, all of them deserve the same respect.

The history of religion is full of exploitation; if someone thinks, differently, he or she are punishable as had done to the Dr. Martin, the thinker of Protestants.  The planet is for human beings not for particular religion who won to make slave to the people of the world by the force of sword.

If the religions are for human being; all these religions should be overhauled to develop the real system where humanity, peace, co-existence, social harmony and mutual respect can be flourished.

If the present form of religions is continuing, everlasting crusade will be continue even in the highly developed technological stage of the human being.  The highly destructive weapons are piled in the hands of another Muhammad and Christ or any other cults.  They want to gain the world by force; in this process human being will be wiped out whom they are going to teach their religion?  Is it not the contribution of so called religions?

References

  1. Church, Synagogue and Temple: page 1, Kathrin Milne, A New Citizen Book. Way land publisher,  London. 1974.
  2. The Mind of Swami Vevekananda an Anthology and a study: Page 21,
  3. Ayodhya Episode-Chronological Account: Received from Hindu Society, Botswana as Pamphlets-1993.
  4. Wars and Battles – World Famous: By Rajendra Kumar. Publisher: Pustak Mahal, Delhi.
  5. The Quaranic Foundation and Structure of Muslim Society: Dr.Muhammad Fazl-Ul-Rahaman Ansari: Page 27, Vol-I, Publisher: The world Federation of Islamic Mission, Islamic Center, Karachi.
  6. Wars and Battles – World Famous: By Rajendra Kumar. Publisher: Pustak Mahal, Delhi.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. The world Book of Encyclopedia: Vol. 1.
  10. Quaranic Foundation and Structure3 of Muslim Society. By: Dr. Muhammad Fazl-Ur-Rahaman Ansari: Page 7 & 8. Publisher: The World Federation of Islamic Mission, Islamic Center, Karachi.
  11. Ibid. Page 8-9.
  12. Man Kind’s Search for God. Page 292. Publisher: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of New York. Inc. 1990.
  13. Quaranic Foundation and Structure3 of Muslim Society. By: Dr. Muhammad Fazl-Ur-Rahaman Ansari: Page 7 & 8. Publisher: The World Federation of Islamic Mission, Islamic Center, Karachi.
  14. Coller’s Encyclopedia. M. Page. 83-91.
  15. Mankind’s Search for God: Page 292, Publisher: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. 1990.
  16. Coller’s Encyclopedia. M. Page. 83-91., 180-183 Ibid. Most of the related fact are coated the Vol. M. page 83-91.
  17. A short history of Catholic Church: Page: 1, By: Philip Hughes, Publisher: Burns and Oats.
  18. Ibid. Page 4,
  19. Ibid Page 29.
  20. Wars and Battles – World Famous: By Rajendra Kumar. Publisher: Pustak Mahal, Delhi.
  21. Ibid page:78.
  22. The Orthodox Church, By : Sergein Hackle.
  23. A short history of catholic Church: Page: 1, By: Philip Hughes, Publisher: Burns and Oats.
  24. News Week. Dec 13, 1993. Publisher: News Week Inc.
  25. Prem Chandra and Rastriya Ekata. Page 22. By: Dr. Kamal Ranjan, Publisher: Parijat Prakashan, Patna.
  26. Ibid. Page 24.
  27. Asian Bulletin, Vol-18, No 2, February 1993. Page 39. Publisher : Pao Tai lTen, Taiwan.
  28. Ayodhya Episode-Chronological Account: Received from Hindu Society, Botswana as Pamphlets-1993.
  29. Ibid. 05.
  30. Ibid. 06.
  31. Contemporary Trend In World Terrorism: Page 36. Edited by: Anar Kurz, The Jzffee Center for Strategic Studies, Telaviv University. Publisher: Praeger Publisher, USA and Canada.
  32. Ibid. Page 43.
  33. Mankind’s Search for God: Page 294-295. Publisher: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc.
  34. Contemporary Trend In World Terrorism: Page 58. (See Note 198 for Other detail).
  35. News Week. March 15, 1993. Publisher: News Week Inc.

 

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